Tag Archives: greek

Two Helpful Biblical Greek Sites

I just wanted to point out two helpful (and free!) online Biblical Greek resources.

Daily Dose of Greek

The first, is by one of my favorite professors at Southern Seminary, Dr. Rob Plummer. He has a vision to help people keep their Greek after seminary and part of accomplishing this vision is his excellent site, Daily Dose of Greek. Every weekday he walks through a verse explaining the syntax, vocabulary, and translation. On Saturdays he generally has a special topic or a guest host. The great thing about Daily Dose of Greek is that it is short (and helpful!) so it is easy to watch daily.

You can sign up for the email list here, RSS feed, Twitter, or Facebook

Master Greek

Another site that I recently was alerted to is Master Greek by Dr. Paul Hoskins. This site’s aim is to help with parsing. It is a simple web app that allows you to practice parsing Greek words. You can either do practice mode or quiz yourself. It works well in your browser on the computer or on your phone/tablet.

I was only recently introduced to this site/web app but it functions really well and I can see it being helpful for keeping up with my parsing.

C.S. Lewis’s Experience of Learning Classical Greek

In Suprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life C.S. Lewis recounts reading classical Greek:

I arrived at Gastons (so the Knock’s house was called) on a Saturday, and he announced that we would begin Homer on Monday. I explained that I had never read a word in any dialect but the Attic, assuming that when he knew this he would approach Homer through some preliminary lessons on the Epic language. He replied merely with a sound very frequent in his conversation which I can only spell “Huh.” I found this rather disquieting; and I woke on Monday saying to myself, “Now for Homer. Golly!” The name struck awe into my soul. At nine o’clock we sat down to work in the little upstairs study which soon became so familiar to me. It contained a sofa (on which we sat side by side when he was working with me), a table and chair (which I used when I was alone), a bookcase, a gas stove, and a framed photograph, of Mr. Gladstone. We opened our books at Iliad, Book I. Without a word of introduction Knock read aloud the first twenty lines or so in the “new” pronunciation, which I had never heard before. Like Smewgy, he was a chanter; less mel­low in voice, yet full gutturals and rolling r’s and more varied vowels seemed to suit the Bronze Age epic as well as Smewgy’s honey tongue had suited Horace. For Kirk, even after years of residence in England, spoke the purest Ulster.

He then translated, with a few, a very few explanations, about a hundred lines. I had never seen a classical author taken in such large gulps before. When he had finished he handed me over Crusius’ Lexicon and, having told me to go through again as much as I could of what he had done, left the room.

It seems an odd method of teaching, but it worked. At first I could travel only a very short way along the trail he had blazed, but every day I could travel further. Presently I could travel the whole way. Then I could go a line or two beyond his furthest North. Then it became a kind of game to see how far beyond. He appeared at this stage to value speed more than absolute accuracy. The great gain was that I very soon became able to understand a great deal without (even mentally) translating it; I was beginning to think in Greek. That is the great Rubicon to cross in learning any language. Those in whom the Greek word lives only while they are hunting for it in the lexicon, and who then substitute the Eng­lish word for it, are not reading the Greek at all; they are only solving a puzzle. The very formula, “Naus means a ship,” is wrong. Naus and ship both mean a thing, they do not mean one another. Behind Naus, as behind navis or naca, we want to have a picture of a dark, slender mass with sail or oars, climbing the ridges, with no officious English word intruding.

C.S. Lewis, *Suprised by Joy: The Shape of My Early Life, pp. 140–141.

I was first alerted to this section in Rodney Whitacre’s Patristic Greek Reader (p. xxiii FN 23)

QOTD: Greek Has No Concern with German or English – AT Robertson

Concerning the article in Greek…

Often this will make extremely awkward English…but the Greek has no concern about the English or German. It is simply slovenliness not to try to see the thing from the Greek standpoint. But we are not to make a slavish rendering. Translation should be idiomatic. It is hardly worth while to warn the inept that there is no connection between the article τό and the English to

— A. T. Robertson, A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research (Logos Bible Software, 1919), 1065.

QOTD: The Adequacy of Language (Silva)

Have you ever heard that Greek is a superior language because its complexities?

…the discovery and analysis of exceedingly complex languages spoken by uncivilized peoples argues against viewing Greek as superior because of its complexity. Every language is adequate with respect to the culture in which it is spoken. By and large, the greatness of Greek resides in its literature, not in any inherent qualities of its linguistic structure. Similarly, we must not confuse the worth of Christian doctrines with that of the linguistic medium used to communicate it—though we may certainly appreciate the wisdom of God’s providence in choosing a language that enjoyed a rich literary tradition and that had become a universal means of communication.

— M. Silva “Biblical Greek”

Book Notice: The Greek Article by Ronald Peters

A new book published by Brill on the Greek article looks to be helpful. The description on Brill’s website says:

In The Greek Article, Ronald D. Peters presents a grammar of the Greek article and relative pronoun, categorized as ὁ-items, which was formulated using the principles of Systemic-Functional Linguistics. This categorization stands in contrast to previous grammars, which have categorically associated the article with the demonstrative pronoun. Thus, the present work represents a significant paradigm shift in the study of the Greek article.

Unlike previous approaches that have too often yielded internally inconsistent and contradictory rules of usage, this approach results in a description of the article’s function that is uniform across all occurrences. Simultaneously simple and robust, this grammar promises to pay significant dividends for exegetes and translators of the Greek New Testament.

You can purchase on Amazon here.

How to use BDAG – Rodney Decker

This is a repost of mine from about a year ago but I thought it would be helpful to post it again with the new semester starting. BDAG is an invaluable resource but unfortunately many people treat it like a dictionary for glosses. If you spend the time now to learn how to use it then it will help your Greek studies in the future…

If you’re anything like me you began using A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Christian Literature (BDAG) without stopping to think about how actually to use it.  Sure, you can use it to find a reliable gloss but there is a wealth of information in there that you are not tapping into.  Rodney Decker has written (back in 2003) an extremely helpful essay giving a brief history of lexicography and BDAG along with an extensive analysis of how to actually use the lexicon.  This is one essay that I wish I would have read in my first semester of Greek.

You can find the link to the essay here.  The essay is also in the appendix of his Koine Greek Reader

Also, you should check out his website/blog, NT Resources, which is filled with a wealth of Greek and other biblical resources.

QOTD: Steve Runge on the Need for Preachers and Teachers to Learn the Original Languages

Steve Runge on the need for preachers and teachers to learn the original languages:

“Exegesis and exposition are all about understanding the original and drawing out the meaning. Translation is often an ill-suited medium for this, even though it is the one most commonly used. One may have a very clear understanding of something and still find it troublesome to capture all of the information in a translation. Do not worry: exposition gives you the opportunity to elaborate aspects of a passage that cannot be well-captured in translation[1].”


  1. Runge, Steven. Discourse Grammar of the Greek New Testament : A Practical Introduction for Teaching and Exegesis. Peabody Mass.: Hendrickson Publishers Marketing, 2010, 19.  ↩

Daily Greek Reading Setup

In order to master any language you need daily exposure to it. Many seminary students quickly lose their languages because they do not continue reading Greek after their 1–2 years in class. Only spending a couple semesters in a language is not enough to learn a language, let alone master it. I saw this quote on Twitter awhile back that said “If a person only takes Greek or Hebrew for a year, all they really learn is English[1].” Why is it so hard to keep up the languages after initial exposure to them? For starters, it takes a lot of time to try to keep up the languages. Couple this with other aspects of life such as family, work, and other classes students quickly just run out of time if it is not made a priority. Personally, I have often fallen into this trap and I will go weeks without reading Greek or Latin.

A student must have discipline, motivation, and time to keep up with the languages. Even when one has these three pillars of learning a language distraction often times ensues. Technology I think is probably the number one distraction for many of us. Whether it be social media or getting lost in Bible software we can often sit down with good intentions but when that 20–30 minutes that we had set aside passes we can often not have been as productive as we could have.

This is why I have found that the ideal setup for daily reading in the languages minimizes or eliminates all uses of technology. The following setup is what I have found to be most beneficial for reading Greek on a fairly consistent basis. There are four principles that I try to follow when I do this in the morning:

  1. No technology
  2. No notes
  3. Use time limits instead of length of text limits (i.e. 30 minute goal instead of trying to read 15 verses in a sitting)
  4. Good coffee

The goal for consistent Greek reading is to keep it simple. The fewer the resources and distractions the better.

Technology

Technology is a major distraction. Social media consumes our time quickly without us realizing it. But this is not the only distraction that we often face. Bible software is the other aspect that hinders our ability to learn the languages. It is far too easy to double click a word to parse it rather than thinking through it and forcing ourselves to make a decision without help. Another danger in daily reading is the ease of use to search for other things we find interesting when reading a text. For example, you’re reading through a text and you come across a construction that seems odd. When your computer is out it is easy to quickly search for this construction or post online a question somewhere for help. This can quickly take 10–15 minutes of our time. If our goal was to read for 30 minutes all of a sudden we quickly lost 50% of that time.

So what is the solution? I have found that the Zondervan Greek Reader is the ideal solution. It is light and thin, which makes it easy to carry around and read anywhere. It provides vocabulary help in the footnotes and a small dictionary in the back for words not in the footnotes. By having vocabulary that occurs less than 30x in the footnotes (and all others in the back) this eliminates the need for a separate lexicon or computer software.

By the recommendation of Brian Davidson I also recently picked up the Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament. I don’t consider this a necessity but it is extremely helpful for words that I cannot parse. This lexicon allows you to look up the word as is (i.e. not the lexical for but the form in the text) and it will parse it and give a definition. It also includes helpful paradigms that are linked to the words. For example if the word is πειθαρχήσαντας it gives the code 6.A.2, which is linked to a paradigm in the back that follows this pattern.

This is it. You don’t need a grammar, lexicon, or notebook for your daily reading.

No Notes

In order to maximize my time I try not to take any notes when I am reading. Yes, writing does help reinforce what you learn but I have found that often times this distracts me from just reading the text. The goal for daily reading is to read as much of the text as possible with the hope that doing this daily we will begin to have a better grasp on the text.

Use time limits

I used to set goals of verses or chapters when reading. But I have come to realize that often my time is precious and I become discouraged when I set a reading goal that I can’t achieve. So instead of length of text goals I set a time limit and try to get through as much text as I can. I generally try to do 20–30 minutes a day but sometimes I have to limit myself to 10–15, which is still better than not doing it at all.

Good coffee

Coffee opens the senses and helps the brain start firing on all cylinders. Don’t ruin your language reading by drinking bad coffee. If your going to drink Folgers, Maxwell House, Starbucks or something else like that you might as well use an interlinear Bible to read the Greek text. Just as Folgers and Starbucks is a terrible way to get your daily dose of coffee so is using an interlinear to try to improve your language reading. Find a local coffee shop and buy from them or better yet roast your own.

If you have any other comments or suggestions feel free to leave them below.

I also suggest that you look at Tavis Bohlinger’s excellent series titled Practice Greek Like a Violin Player over at his Abbey House Sojourner blog.

Greek Reading List

I have been trying to do more Greek reading of late and I came across this list over at the Dunelm Road blog. The list is by Daniel Wallace and was originally posted by Ben Blackwell[1] here.. The order of the list is supposed to go form easiest to hardest while being grouped in about 10 chapter increments.

Theoretically one could read the whole New Testament in a month but for my studies right now that seems a little too ambitious. I do think I will try to start with a chapter a day and increase over time.

I find it best to use the Zondervan Greek Reader for when I am just reading Greek. I find by using the reader it forces me to think through words I should know but have forgotten. For example, if you come across a word that occurs more than 30x it will not be listed in the footnotes. If I were not using a reader I would have a much quicker trigger looking up a word that I already know. I prefer this reader over UBS Greek NT Reader’s Edition for a couple reasons:

  1. No parsing. I find this to be an advantage because it forces me to work on my parsing on vocabulary I do not know. In the UBS reader it parses both difficult words and every word that occurs 30x or less.
  2. Size. The Zondervan reader is roughly over half the size of the UBS Reader, which makes it much easier to carry around from place to place.

If anyone is interested in forming a Greek reading plan with me just contact me via twitter (@renshaw330) or email (brenshaw833@gmail.com). This would mostly be for accountability purposes because it is so easy to stray from reading the original languages daily.

Here is the list:

  1. John 1–11
  2. John 12–21
  3. 1 John; 2 John; 3 John; Philemon
  4. Mark 1–8
  5. Mark 9–16
  6. Matthew 1–10
  7. Matthew 11–20
  8. Matthew 21–28
  9. Revelation 1–11
  10. Revelation 12–22
  11. 1 Thessalonians; 2 Thessalonians
  12. Ephesians; Colossians
  13. Philippians; Romans 1–8
  14. Romans 9–16
  15. 1 Corinthians 1–10
  16. 1 Corinthians 11–16
  17. Galatians; James
  18. 1 Peter; 1 Timothy
  19. 2 Timothy; Titus
  20. Jude; 2 Peter
  21. 2 Corinthians 1–7
  22. 2 Corinthians 8–13
  23. Luke 1–8
  24. Luke 9–16
  25. Luke 17–24
  26. Acts 1–10
  27. Acts 11–19
  28. Acts 20–28
  29. Hebrews 1–7
  30. Hebrews 8–13

Download the PDF of the list here.

Tavis Bohlinger has several good posts on practicing greek like a violin player. You can find his introductory post here.


  1. You can follow him on twitter at @bencblackwell  ↩

Greek Syntax Searching in Accordance

http://www.instapaper.com/e2?url=https://brianrenshaw.com/blog/2013/4/26/greek-syntax-searching-in-accordance&title=Greek%20Syntax%20Searching%20in%20Accordance

I just came across a post on Rod Decker’s NT Resources site that links to a PDF of a summary of Greek syntax searching in Accordance. I am still figuring out all the research capabilities of Accordance and this is proving to be extremely helpful. He says:

I’ve compiled the material in the pdf linked below from the Accordance Forums for easier reference. The Syntax module in Accordance is not yet complete (they are finished for Matt-Acts) and the documentation in the Help files are all OT/Hebrew oriented. The NT editor, however, has posted a number of very helpful tutorials in the Accordance forums.

Here is the link to the site.

Here is a link to the PDF.

Read the Gospel Resurrection Narratives in Greek (with vocab)

Read the resurrection narratives in Greek today in celebration of the resurrection of Jesus Christ. I have made a reader that has words that occur less than 30x in the GNT. Happy reading! (The Greek text is from Holmes, Michael W. The Greek New Testament: SBL Edition. Logos Bible Software, 2010). The vocabulary glosses were compiled using Accordance Bible Software.

Download the PDF here 

Texts

  • Matthew 28:1-10
  • Mark 16:1-8
  • Luke 24:1-49
  • John 20:1-23

Gospel of Matthew

The Resurrection (28:1–10)

1 Ὀψὲ δὲ σαββάτων, τῇ ἐπιφωσκούσῃ εἰς μίαν σαββάτων, ἦλθεν Μαριὰμ ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ καὶ ἡ ἄλλη Μαρία θεωρῆσαι τὸν τάφον. 2 καὶ ἰδοὺ σεισμὸς ἐγένετο μέγας ἄγγελος γὰρ κυρίου καταβὰς ἐξ οὐρανοῦ καὶ προσελθὼν ἀπεκύλισε τὸν λίθον καὶ ἐκάθητο ἐπάνω αὐτοῦ. 3 ἦν δὲ ἡ εἰδέα αὐτοῦ ὡς ἀστραπὴ καὶ τὸ ἔνδυμα αὐτοῦ λευκὸν ὡς χιών. 4 ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ φόβου αὐτοῦ ἐσείσθησαν οἱ τηροῦντες καὶ ἐγενήθησαν ὡς νεκροί. 5 ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ ἄγγελος εἶπεν ταῖς γυναιξίν Μὴ φοβεῖσθε ὑμεῖς, οἶδα γὰρ ὅτι Ἰησοῦν τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον ζητεῖτε 6 οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε, ἠγέρθη γὰρ καθὼς εἶπεν δεῦτε ἴδετε τὸν τόπον ὅπου ἔκειτο 7 καὶ ταχὺ πορευθεῖσαι εἴπατε τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ ὅτι Ἠγέρθη ἀπὸ τῶν νεκρῶν, καὶ ἰδοὺ προάγει ὑμᾶς εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν, ἐκεῖ αὐτὸν ὄψεσθε ἰδοὺ εἶπον ὑμῖν. 8 καὶ ἀπελθοῦσαι ταχὺ ἀπὸ τοῦ μνημείου μετὰ φόβου καὶ χαρᾶς μεγάλης ἔδραμον ἀπαγγεῖλαι τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ. 9 καὶ ἰδοὺ Ἰησοῦς ὑπήντησεν αὐταῖς λέγων Χαίρετε αἱ δὲ προσελθοῦσαι ἐκράτησαν αὐτοῦ τοὺς πόδας καὶ προσεκύνησαν αὐτῷ. 10 τότε λέγει αὐταῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Μὴ φοβεῖσθε ὑπάγετε ἀπαγγείλατε τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς μου ἵνα ἀπέλθωσιν εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν, κἀκεῖ με ὄψονται.

Vocab

ἀποκυλίω to roll away;
ἀστραπή lightning;
δεῦτε come! come, now!;
εἰδέα appearance;
ἔνδυμα clothing;
ἐπάνω (+gen) over, above, upon, on;
ἐπιφώσκω to dawn;
κεῖμαι to lie down; to be valid for;
λευκός white;
Μαγδαληνή Magdalene;
Μαρία Mary;
Μαριάμ Miriam; Mary;
ὀψέ (+gen) after (prep.); evening (adv.);
προάγω to go before; to elevate;
σεισμός shake, earthquake; shakedown (extortion);
σείω to shake;
τάφος grave;
τάφος swift, quickly, soon;
τρέχω to run;
ὑπαντάω to meet;
χιών snow;

Gospel of Mark

The Resurrection (16:1–8)

1 Καὶ διαγενομένου τοῦ σαββάτου Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ καὶ Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Ἰακώβου καὶ Σαλώμη ἠγόρασαν ἀρώματα ἵνα ἐλθοῦσαι ἀλείψωσιν αὐτόν. 2 καὶ λίαν πρωῒ τῇ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων ἔρχονται ἐπὶ τὸ μνημεῖον ἀνατείλαντος τοῦ ἡλίου. 3 καὶ ἔλεγον πρὸς ἑαυτάς Τίς ἀποκυλίσει ἡμῖν τὸν λίθον ἐκ τῆς θύρας τοῦ μνημείου; 4 καὶ ἀναβλέψασαι θεωροῦσιν ὅτι ἀποκεκύλισται ὁ λίθος, ἦν γὰρ μέγας σφόδρα. 5 καὶ εἰσελθοῦσαι εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον εἶδον νεανίσκον καθήμενον ἐν τοῖς δεξιοῖς περιβεβλημένον στολὴν λευκήν, καὶ ἐξεθαμβήθησαν. 6 ὁ δὲ λέγει αὐταῖς Μὴ ἐκθαμβεῖσθε Ἰησοῦν ζητεῖτε τὸν Ναζαρηνὸν τὸν ἐσταυρωμένον ἠγέρθη, οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε ἴδε ὁ τόπος ὅπου ἔθηκαν αὐτόν 7 ἀλλὰ ὑπάγετε εἴπατε τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ καὶ τῷ Πέτρῳ ὅτι Προάγει ὑμᾶς εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν ἐκεῖ αὐτὸν ὄψεσθε, καθὼς εἶπεν ὑμῖν. 8 καὶ ἐξελθοῦσαι ἔφυγον ἀπὸ τοῦ μνημείου, εἶχεν γὰρ αὐτὰς τρόμος καὶ ἔκστασις καὶ οὐδενὶ οὐδὲν εἶπαν, ἐφοβοῦντο γάρ.

Vocab

ἀγοράζω to buy;
ἀλείφω to anoint;
ἀναβλέπω to receive sight;
ἀνατέλλω to rise, cause to rise, to grow, spring up;
ἀποκυλίω to roll away;
ἄρωμα spices;
διαγίνομαι to live; to pass time;
ἐκθαμβέω to be alarmed;
ἔκστασις trance, vision; amazement;
ἴδε look! pay attention!;
λευκός white;
λίαν exceedingly;
Μαγδαληνή Magdalene;
Μαρία Mary;
Ναζαρηνός Nazarene;
νεανίσκος young man;
περιβάλλω to put on, clothe;
προάγω to go before; to elevate;
πρωΐ in the morning;
Σαλώμη Salome;
στολή clothing; robe;
σφόδρα very much;
τρόμος trembling;
φεύγω to flee;

Gospel of Luke

The Resurrection (24:1–12)

1 τῇ δὲ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων ὄρθρου βαθέως ἐπὶ τὸ μνῆμα ἦλθον φέρουσαι ἃ ἡτοίμασαν ἀρώματα. 2 εὗρον δὲ τὸν λίθον ἀποκεκυλισμένον ἀπὸ τοῦ μνημείου, 3 εἰσελθοῦσαι δὲ οὐχ εὗρον τὸ σῶμα. 4 καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ἀπορεῖσθαι αὐτὰς περὶ τούτου καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνδρες δύο ἐπέστησαν αὐταῖς ἐν ἐσθῆτι ἀστραπτούσῃ. 5 ἐμφόβων δὲ γενομένων αὐτῶν καὶ κλινουσῶν τὰ πρόσωπα εἰς τὴν γῆν εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτάς Τί ζητεῖτε τὸν ζῶντα μετὰ τῶν νεκρῶν; 6 οὐκ ἔστιν ὧδε, ἀλλὰ ἠγέρθη. μνήσθητε ὡς ἐλάλησεν ὑμῖν ἔτι ὢν ἐν τῇ Γαλιλαίᾳ, 7 λέγων τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ὅτι δεῖ παραδοθῆναι εἰς χεῖρας ἀνθρώπων ἁμαρτωλῶν καὶ σταυρωθῆναι καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἀναστῆναι. 8 καὶ ἐμνήσθησαν τῶν ῥημάτων αὐτοῦ, 9 καὶ ὑποστρέψασαι ἀπὸ τοῦ μνημείου ἀπήγγειλαν ταῦτα πάντα τοῖς ἕνδεκα καὶ πᾶσιν τοῖς λοιποῖς. 10 ἦσαν δὲ ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ Μαρία καὶ Ἰωάννα καὶ Μαρία ἡ Ἰακώβου καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ σὺν αὐταῖς ἔλεγον πρὸς τοὺς ἀποστόλους ταῦτα. 11 καὶ ἐφάνησαν ἐνώπιον αὐτῶν ὡσεὶ λῆρος τὰ ῥήματα ταῦτα, καὶ ἠπίστουν αὐταῖς. 12 Ὁ δὲ Πέτρος ἀναστὰς ἔδραμεν ἐπὶ τὸ μνημεῖον καὶ παρακύψας βλέπει τὰ ὀθόνια μόνα καὶ ἀπῆλθεν πρὸς αὑτὸν θαυμάζων τὸ γεγονός.

Vocab

ἀπιστέω to disbelieve, distrust;
ἀποκυλίω to roll away;
ἀπορέω to be at a loss;
ἄρωμα spices;
ἀστράπτω to flash;
βαθύς deep;
ἔμφοβος afraid;
ἕνδεκα eleven;
ἐσθής clothing;
ἐφίστημι to set, set over, establish; to come upon;
Ἰωάννα Joanna;
κλίνω to lay, tip over;
λῆρος empty talk, nonsense;
Μαγδαληνή Magdalene;
Μαρία Mary;
μιμνῄσκομαι to remember; remind;
μνῆμα tomb;
ὀθόνιον linen cloth, wrapping;
ὄρθρος dawn; early in the morning;
παρακύπτω to look through; to lean in; to stoop down;
τρέχω to run;
ὡσεί like, as, about;

The Road to Emmaus (24:13–35)

13 Καὶ ἰδοὺ δύο ἐξ αὐτῶν ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἦσαν πορευόμενοι εἰς κώμην ἀπέχουσαν σταδίους ἑξήκοντα ἀπὸ Ἰερουσαλήμ, ᾗ ὄνομα Ἐμμαοῦς, 14 καὶ αὐτοὶ ὡμίλουν πρὸς ἀλλήλους περὶ πάντων τῶν συμβεβηκότων τούτων. 15 καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ὁμιλεῖν αὐτοὺς καὶ συζητεῖν καὶ αὐτὸς Ἰησοῦς ἐγγίσας συνεπορεύετο αὐτοῖς, 16 οἱ δὲ ὀφθαλμοὶ αὐτῶν ἐκρατοῦντο τοῦ μὴ ἐπιγνῶναι αὐτόν. 17 εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς Τίνες οἱ λόγοι οὗτοι οὓς ἀντιβάλλετε πρὸς ἀλλήλους περιπατοῦντες; καὶ ἐστάθησαν σκυθρωποί. 18 ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ εἷς ὀνόματι Κλεοπᾶς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτόν Σὺ μόνος παροικεῖς Ἰερουσαλὴμ καὶ οὐκ ἔγνως τὰ γενόμενα ἐν αὐτῇ ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ταύταις; 19 καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ποῖα; οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ Τὰ περὶ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ Ναζαρηνοῦ, ὃς ἐγένετο ἀνὴρ προφήτης δυνατὸς ἐν ἔργῳ καὶ λόγῳ ἐναντίον τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ παντὸς τοῦ λαοῦ, 20 ὅπως τε παρέδωκαν αὐτὸν οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ ἄρχοντες ἡμῶν εἰς κρίμα θανάτου καὶ ἐσταύρωσαν αὐτόν. 21 ἡμεῖς δὲ ἠλπίζομεν ὅτι αὐτός ἐστιν ὁ μέλλων λυτροῦσθαι τὸν Ἰσραήλ ἀλλά γε καὶ σὺν πᾶσιν τούτοις τρίτην ταύτην ἡμέραν ἄγει ἀφʼ οὗ ταῦτα ἐγένετο. 22 ἀλλὰ καὶ γυναῖκές τινες ἐξ ἡμῶν ἐξέστησαν ἡμᾶς, γενόμεναι ὀρθριναὶ ἐπὶ τὸ μνημεῖον 23 καὶ μὴ εὑροῦσαι τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ ἦλθον λέγουσαι καὶ ὀπτασίαν ἀγγέλων ἑωρακέναι, οἳ λέγουσιν αὐτὸν ζῆν. 24 καὶ ἀπῆλθόν τινες τῶν σὺν ἡμῖν ἐπὶ τὸ μνημεῖον, καὶ εὗρον οὕτως καθὼς καὶ αἱ γυναῖκες εἶπον, αὐτὸν δὲ οὐκ εἶδον. 25 καὶ αὐτὸς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς Ὦ ἀνόητοι καὶ βραδεῖς τῇ καρδίᾳ τοῦ πιστεύειν ἐπὶ πᾶσιν οἷς ἐλάλησαν οἱ προφῆται 26 οὐχὶ ταῦτα ἔδει παθεῖν τὸν χριστὸν καὶ εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ; 27 καὶ ἀρξάμενος ἀπὸ Μωϋσέως καὶ ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν προφητῶν διερμήνευσεν αὐτοῖς ἐν πάσαις ταῖς γραφαῖς τὰ περὶ ἑαυτοῦ. 28 Καὶ ἤγγισαν εἰς τὴν κώμην οὗ ἐπορεύοντο, καὶ αὐτὸς προσεποιήσατο πορρώτερον πορεύεσθαι. 29 καὶ παρεβιάσαντο αὐτὸν λέγοντες Μεῖνον μεθʼ ἡμῶν, ὅτι πρὸς ἑσπέραν ἐστὶν καὶ κέκλικεν ἤδη ἡ ἡμέρα. καὶ εἰσῆλθεν τοῦ μεῖναι σὺν αὐτοῖς. 30 καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ κατακλιθῆναι αὐτὸν μετʼ αὐτῶν λαβὼν τὸν ἄρτον εὐλόγησεν καὶ κλάσας ἐπεδίδου αὐτοῖς 31 αὐτῶν δὲ διηνοίχθησαν οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ καὶ ἐπέγνωσαν αὐτόν καὶ αὐτὸς ἄφαντος ἐγένετο ἀπʼ αὐτῶν. 32 καὶ εἶπαν πρὸς ἀλλήλους Οὐχὶ ἡ καρδία ἡμῶν καιομένη ἦν ἐν ἡμῖν ὡς ἐλάλει ἡμῖν ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ, ὡς διήνοιγεν ἡμῖν τὰς γραφάς; 33 καὶ ἀναστάντες αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ ὑπέστρεψαν εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ, καὶ εὗρον ἠθροισμένους τοὺς ἕνδεκα καὶ τοὺς σὺν αὐτοῖς, 34 λέγοντας ὅτι ὄντως ἠγέρθη ὁ κύριος καὶ ὤφθη Σίμωνι. 35 καὶ αὐτοὶ ἐξηγοῦντο τὰ ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ καὶ ὡς ἐγνώσθη αὐτοῖς ἐν τῇ κλάσει τοῦ ἄρτου.

Vocab

ἀθροίζω to gather together;
ἀνόητος foolish;
ἀντιβάλλω to exchange;
ἀπέχω to receive, obtain, get, be far off;
ἄφαντος vanish out of sight;
βραδύς slow;
γέ yet, indeed, surely;
διανοίγω to open up, reveal;
διερμηνεύω to explain, interpret;
Ἐμμαοῦς Emmaus;
ἐναντίον (+gen) before;
ἕνδεκα eleven;
ἐξηγέομαι to explain, order; interpret, exposite;
ἑξήκοντα sixty;
ἐξίστημι to amaze, confuse;
ἐπιδίδωμι to give;
ἑσπέρα evening;
καίω to burn, kindle, light;
κατακλίνω to sit down, cause to sit down;
κλάσις breaking;
κλάω to break;
Κλεοπᾶς Cleopas;
κλίνω to lay, tip over;
κρίμα judgment, decree, decision;
κώμη village;
λυτρόω to ransom, redeem;
Ναζαρηνός Nazarene;
ὁμιλέω to associate with; to talk; to have intercourse;
ὄντως really, indeed;
ὀπτασία vision;
ὀρθρινός morning;
οὗ where, to where;
παραβιάζομαι to defy; to press; to persuade;
παροικέω to live in as a stranger;
πόρρω far away;
προσποιέω to add on; to act as if;
σκυθρωπός gloomy;
στάδιον stade (length); stadium; walkway;
συζητέω to argue, question;
συμβαίνω to happen, befall;
συμπορεύομαι to come with, go with;
omega; O (address), or Oh!; alas;

Jesus Appears to His Disciples (24:36–49)

36 Ταῦτα δὲ αὐτῶν λαλούντων αὐτὸς ἔστη ἐν μέσῳ αὐτῶν. 37 πτοηθέντες δὲ καὶ ἔμφοβοι γενόμενοι ἐδόκουν πνεῦμα θεωρεῖν. 38 καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Τί τεταραγμένοι ἐστέ, καὶ διὰ τί διαλογισμοὶ ἀναβαίνουσιν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ ὑμῶν; 39 ἴδετε τὰς χεῖράς μου καὶ τοὺς πόδας μου ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι αὐτός ψηλαφήσατέ με καὶ ἴδετε, ὅτι πνεῦμα σάρκα καὶ ὀστέα οὐκ ἔχει καθὼς ἐμὲ θεωρεῖτε ἔχοντα. 40 [καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν ἔδειξεν αὐτοῖς τὰς χεῖρας καὶ τοὺς πόδας.] 41 ἔτι δὲ ἀπιστούντων αὐτῶν ἀπὸ τῆς χαρᾶς καὶ θαυμαζόντων εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ἔχετέ τι βρώσιμον ἐνθάδε; 42 οἱ δὲ ἐπέδωκαν αὐτῷ ἰχθύος ὀπτοῦ μέρος 43 καὶ λαβὼν ἐνώπιον αὐτῶν ἔφαγεν. 44 Εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς Οὗτοι οἱ λόγοι μου οὓς ἐλάλησα πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἔτι ὢν σὺν ὑμῖν, ὅτι δεῖ πληρωθῆναι πάντα τὰ γεγραμμένα ἐν τῷ νόμῳ Μωϋσέως καὶ προφήταις καὶ ψαλμοῖς περὶ ἐμοῦ. 45 τότε διήνοιξεν αὐτῶν τὸν νοῦν τοῦ συνιέναι τὰς γραφάς, 46 καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὅτι οὕτως γέγραπται παθεῖν τὸν χριστὸν καὶ ἀναστῆναι ἐκ νεκρῶν τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ, 47 καὶ κηρυχθῆναι ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ μετάνοιαν καὶ ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν εἰς πάντα τὰ ἔθνη— ἀρξάμενοι ἀπὸ Ἰερουσαλήμ 48 ὑμεῖς ἐστε μάρτυρες τούτων. 49 καὶ ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἐξαποστέλλω τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν τοῦ πατρός μου ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς ὑμεῖς δὲ καθίσατε ἐν τῇ πόλει ἕως οὗ ἐνδύσησθε ἐξ ὕψους δύναμιν.

Vocab

ἀπιστέω to disbelieve, distrust;
ἄφεσις forgiveness, release, remission;
βρώσιμος edible; food;
δείκνυμι to show;
διαλογισμός thought, opinion, discussion;
διανοίγω to open up, reveal;
ἔμφοβος afraid;
ἐνδύω to wear, put on;
ἐνθάδε here, to this place;
ἐπιδίδωμι to give;
ἰχθύς fish;
μετάνοια repentance;
νοῦς mind, thought;
νοῦς broiled, roasted;
ὀστέον bone;
πτοέω to terrify;
συνίημι to understand, to think about;
ταράσσω to trouble;
ὕψος height;
ψαλμός psalm;
ψηλαφάω to touch, feel

Gospel of John

The Resurrection (20:1–10)

1 Τῇ δὲ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ ἔρχεται πρωῒ σκοτίας ἔτι οὔσης εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον, καὶ βλέπει τὸν λίθον ἠρμένον ἐκ τοῦ μνημείου. 2 τρέχει οὖν καὶ ἔρχεται πρὸς Σίμωνα Πέτρον καὶ πρὸς τὸν ἄλλον μαθητὴν ὃν ἐφίλει ὁ Ἰησοῦς, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Ἦραν τὸν κύριον ἐκ τοῦ μνημείου, καὶ οὐκ οἴδαμεν ποῦ ἔθηκαν αὐτόν. 3 ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ Πέτρος καὶ ὁ ἄλλος μαθητής, καὶ ἤρχοντο εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον. 4 ἔτρεχον δὲ οἱ δύο ὁμοῦ καὶ ὁ ἄλλος μαθητὴς προέδραμεν τάχιον τοῦ Πέτρου καὶ ἦλθεν πρῶτος εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον, 5 καὶ παρακύψας βλέπει κείμενα τὰ ὀθόνια, οὐ μέντοι εἰσῆλθεν. 6 ἔρχεται οὖν καὶ Σίμων Πέτρος ἀκολουθῶν αὐτῷ, καὶ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον καὶ θεωρεῖ τὰ ὀθόνια κείμενα, 7 καὶ τὸ σουδάριον, ὃ ἦν ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ, οὐ μετὰ τῶν ὀθονίων κείμενον ἀλλὰ χωρὶς ἐντετυλιγμένον εἰς ἕνα τόπον 8 τότε οὖν εἰσῆλθεν καὶ ὁ ἄλλος μαθητὴς ὁ ἐλθὼν πρῶτος εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον, καὶ εἶδεν καὶ ἐπίστευσεν 9 οὐδέπω γὰρ ᾔδεισαν τὴν γραφὴν ὅτι δεῖ αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῆναι. 10 ἀπῆλθον οὖν πάλιν πρὸς αὑτοὺς οἱ μαθηταί.

Vocab

ἐντυλίσσω to wrap in;
κεῖμαι to lie down; to be valid for;
Μαγδαληνή Magdalene;
Μαρία Mary;
μέντοι but, nevertheless;
ὀθόνιον linen cloth, wrapping;
ὁμοῦ together;
οὐδέπω not yet;
παρακύπτω to look through; to lean in; to stoop down;
προτρέχω to run ahead;
πρωΐ in the morning;
σκοτία darkness;
σουδάριον handkerchief;
ταχέως quickly, soon;
τρέχω to run;
φιλέω to love, have affection for; kiss;

Jesus Appears to Mary Magdalene (20:11–18)

11 Μαρία δὲ εἱστήκει πρὸς τῷ μνημείῳ ἔξω κλαίουσα. ὡς οὖν ἔκλαιεν παρέκυψεν εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον, 12 καὶ θεωρεῖ δύο ἀγγέλους ἐν λευκοῖς καθεζομένους, ἕνα πρὸς τῇ κεφαλῇ καὶ ἕνα πρὸς τοῖς ποσίν, ὅπου ἔκειτο τὸ σῶμα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ. 13 καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῇ ἐκεῖνοι Γύναι, τί κλαίεις; λέγει αὐτοῖς ὅτι Ἦραν τὸν κύριόν μου, καὶ οὐκ οἶδα ποῦ ἔθηκαν αὐτόν. 14 ταῦτα εἰποῦσα ἐστράφη εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω, καὶ θεωρεῖ τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἑστῶτα, καὶ οὐκ ᾔδει ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ἐστιν. 15 λέγει αὐτῇ Ἰησοῦς Γύναι, τί κλαίεις; τίνα ζητεῖς; ἐκείνη δοκοῦσα ὅτι ὁ κηπουρός ἐστιν λέγει αὐτῷ Κύριε, εἰ σὺ ἐβάστασας αὐτόν, εἰπέ μοι ποῦ ἔθηκας αὐτόν, κἀγὼ αὐτὸν ἀρῶ. 16 λέγει αὐτῇ Ἰησοῦς Μαριάμ. στραφεῖσα ἐκείνη λέγει αὐτῷ Ἑβραϊστί Ραββουνι (ὃ λέγεται Διδάσκαλε). 17 λέγει αὐτῇ Ἰησοῦς Μή μου ἅπτου, οὔπω γὰρ ἀναβέβηκα πρὸς τὸν πατέρα πορεύου δὲ πρὸς τοὺς ἀδελφούς μου καὶ εἰπὲ αὐτοῖς Ἀναβαίνω πρὸς τὸν πατέρα μου καὶ πατέρα ὑμῶν καὶ θεόν μου καὶ θεὸν ὑμῶν. 18 ἔρχεται Μαριὰμ ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ ἀγγέλλουσα τοῖς μαθηταῖς ὅτι Ἑώρακα τὸν κύριον καὶ ταῦτα εἶπεν αὐτῇ.

Vocab

ἀγγέλλω to announce;
βαστάζω to bear;
Ἑβραϊστί in the Hebrew/Aramaic language;
καθέζομαι to sit;
κεῖμαι to lie down; to be valid for;
κηπουρός gardener;
λευκός white;
Μαγδαληνή Magdalene;
Μαρία Mary;
Μαριάμ Miriam; Mary;
οὔπω not yet;
παρακύπτω to look through; to lean in; to stoop down;
ῥαββουνί Rabbi (Aram. my teacher);
στρέφω to turn

Jesus Appears to the Disciples (20:19–23)

19 Οὔσης οὖν ὀψίας τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ τῇ μιᾷ σαββάτων, καὶ τῶν θυρῶν κεκλεισμένων ὅπου ἦσαν οἱ μαθηταὶ διὰ τὸν φόβον τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ἦλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ ἔστη εἰς τὸ μέσον, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Εἰρήνη ὑμῖν. 20 καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν ἔδειξεν τὰς χεῖρας καὶ τὴν πλευρὰν αὐτοῖς. ἐχάρησαν οὖν οἱ μαθηταὶ ἰδόντες τὸν κύριον. 21 εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς πάλιν Εἰρήνη ὑμῖν καθὼς ἀπέσταλκέν με ὁ πατήρ, κἀγὼ πέμπω ὑμᾶς. 22 καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν ἐνεφύσησεν καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Λάβετε πνεῦμα ἅγιον 23 ἄν τινων ἀφῆτε τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἀφέωνται αὐτοῖς ἄν τινων κρατῆτε κεκράτηνται.

Vocab

ἄν if;
δείκνυμι to show;
ἐμφυσάω to breath in, upon;
κλείω to close, shut;
ὀψία evening;
πλευρά side; rib

Read John’s Passion Narrative in Greek (with vocab)

I saw this tweet yesterday and thought it would be a good idea to read the Passion narrative in Greek for Good Friday. I chose the Gospel of John because his Greek seems to be easier to read than the other Gospels. I have made a reader that has words that occur less than 30x in the GNT. I have also compiled it as a PDF here. Happy reading! (The Greek text is from Holmes, Michael W. The Greek New Testament: SBL Edition. Logos Bible Software, 2010)

Jesus Before Pilate (18:28–32)

28 Ἄγουσιν οὖν τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἀπὸ τοῦ Καϊάφα εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον· ἦν δὲ πρωΐ· καὶ αὐτοὶ οὐκ εἰσῆλθον εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον, ἵνα μὴ μιανθῶσιν ⸀ἀλλὰ φάγωσιν τὸ πάσχα. 29 ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ Πιλᾶτος ⸀ἔξω πρὸς αὐτοὺς καὶ ⸀φησίν· Τίνα κατηγορίαν φέρετε ⸀κατὰ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τούτου; 30 ἀπεκρίθησαν καὶ εἶπαν αὐτῷ· Εἰ μὴ ἦν οὗτος ⸂κακὸν ποιῶν⸃, οὐκ ἄν σοι παρεδώκαμεν αὐτόν. 31 εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς ⸀ὁ Πιλᾶτος· Λάβετε αὐτὸν ὑμεῖς, καὶ κατὰ τὸν νόμον ὑμῶν κρίνατε αὐτόν. ⸀εἶπον αὐτῷ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι· Ἡμῖν οὐκ ἔξεστιν ἀποκτεῖναι οὐδένα· 32 ἵνα ὁ λόγος τοῦ Ἰησοῦ πληρωθῇ ὃν εἶπεν σημαίνων ποίῳ θανάτῳ ἤμελλεν ἀποθνῄσκειν.

Vocab

Καϊάφας Caiaphas;
κατηγορία accusation;
μιαίνω to defile, pollute;
πάσχα passover; passover lamb;
πραιτώριον army headquarters;
πρωΐ in the morning;
σημαίνω to indicate, signify;

My Kingdom is Not of This World (18:33–40)

33 Εἰσῆλθεν οὖν πάλιν εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον ὁ Πιλᾶτος καὶ ἐφώνησεν τὸν Ἰησοῦν καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· Σὺ εἶ ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων; 34 ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς· Ἀπὸ σεαυτοῦ σὺ τοῦτο λέγεις ἢ ἄλλοι εἶπόν σοι περὶ ἐμοῦ; 35 ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Πιλᾶτος· Μήτι ἐγὼ Ἰουδαῖός εἰμι; τὸ ἔθνος τὸ σὸν καὶ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς παρέδωκάν σε ἐμοί· τί ἐποίησας; 36 ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς· Ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμὴ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου· εἰ ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου ἦν ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμή, οἱ ὑπηρέται οἱ ἐμοὶ ἠγωνίζοντο ἄν, ἵνα μὴ παραδοθῶ τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις· νῦν δὲ ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμὴ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐντεῦθεν. 37 εἶπεν οὖν αὐτῷ ὁ Πιλᾶτος· Οὐκοῦν βασιλεὺς εἶ σύ; ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Σὺ λέγεις ὅτι βασιλεύς εἰμι. ἐγὼ εἰς τοῦτο γεγέννημαι καὶ εἰς τοῦτο ἐλήλυθα εἰς τὸν κόσμον ἵνα μαρτυρήσω τῇ ἀληθείᾳ· πᾶς ὁ ὢν ἐκ τῆς ἀληθείας ἀκούει μου τῆς φωνῆς. 38 λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Πιλᾶτος· Τί ἐστιν ἀλήθεια; Καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν πάλιν ἐξῆλθεν πρὸς τοὺς Ἰουδαίους, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς· Ἐγὼ οὐδεμίαν εὑρίσκω ἐν αὐτῷ αἰτίαν· 39 ἔστιν δὲ συνήθεια ὑμῖν ἵνα ἕνα ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν ἐν τῷ πάσχα· βούλεσθε οὖν ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Ἰουδαίων; 40 ἐκραύγασαν οὖν πάλιν λέγοντες· Μὴ τοῦτον ἀλλὰ τὸν Βαραββᾶν. ἦν δὲ ὁ Βαραββᾶς λῃστής.

Vocab

ἀγωνίζομαι to strive, fight, struggle;
αἰτία cause;
Βαραββᾶς Barabbas;
ἐντεῦθεν from here, on this side… on that side;
κραυγάζω to call out, shout;
λῃστής robber, bandit; insurrectionist;
μήτι unless; neither, nor;
οὐκοῦν so, then, accordingly;
πάσχα passover; passover lamb;
πραιτώριον army headquarters;
σός your (sing.);
συνήθεια companionship; custom;
ὑπηρέτης assistant;

Jesus Delivered to Be Crucified (19:1–16)

1 Τότε οὖν ἔλαβεν ὁ Πιλᾶτος τὸν Ἰησοῦν καὶ ἐμαστίγωσεν. 2 καὶ οἱ στρατιῶται πλέξαντες στέφανον ἐξ ἀκανθῶν ἐπέθηκαν αὐτοῦ τῇ κεφαλῇ, καὶ ἱμάτιον πορφυροῦν περιέβαλον αὐτόν, 3 καὶ ἤρχοντο πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ ἔλεγον· Χαῖρε, ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων· καὶ ἐδίδοσαν αὐτῷ ῥαπίσματα. 4 καὶ ἐξῆλθεν πάλιν ἔξω ὁ Πιλᾶτος καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς· Ἴδε ἄγω ὑμῖν αὐτὸν ἔξω, ἵνα γνῶτε ὅτι οὐδεμίαν αἰτίαν εὑρίσκω ἐν αὐτῷ. 5 ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἔξω, φορῶν τὸν ἀκάνθινον στέφανον καὶ τὸ πορφυροῦν ἱμάτιον. καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς· Ἰδοὺ ὁ ἄνθρωπος. 6 ὅτε οὖν εἶδον αὐτὸν οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ ὑπηρέται ἐκραύγασαν λέγοντες· Σταύρωσον σταύρωσον. λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος· Λάβετε αὐτὸν ὑμεῖς καὶ σταυρώσατε, ἐγὼ γὰρ οὐχ εὑρίσκω ἐν αὐτῷ αἰτίαν. 7 ἀπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι· Ἡμεῖς νόμον ἔχομεν, καὶ κατὰ τὸν νόμον ὀφείλει ἀποθανεῖν, ὅτι υἱὸν θεοῦ ἑαυτὸν ἐποίησεν. 8 Ὅτε οὖν ἤκουσεν ὁ Πιλᾶτος τοῦτον τὸν λόγον, μᾶλλον ἐφοβήθη, 9 καὶ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον πάλιν καὶ λέγει τῷ Ἰησοῦ· Πόθεν εἶ σύ; ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἀπόκρισιν οὐκ ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ. 10 λέγει οὖν αὐτῷ ὁ Πιλᾶτος· Ἐμοὶ οὐ λαλεῖς; οὐκ οἶδας ὅτι ἐξουσίαν ἔχω ἀπολῦσαί σε καὶ ἐξουσίαν ἔχω σταυρῶσαί σε; 11 ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς· Οὐκ εἶχες ἐξουσίαν κατʼ ἐμοῦ οὐδεμίαν εἰ μὴ ἦν δεδομένον σοι ἄνωθεν· διὰ τοῦτο ὁ παραδούς μέ σοι μείζονα ἁμαρτίαν ἔχει. 12 ἐκ τούτου ὁ Πιλᾶτος ἐζήτει ἀπολῦσαι αὐτόν· οἱ δὲ Ἰουδαῖοι ἐκραύγασαν λέγοντες· Ἐὰν τοῦτον ἀπολύσῃς, οὐκ εἶ φίλος τοῦ Καίσαρος· πᾶς ὁ βασιλέα ἑαυτὸν ποιῶν ἀντιλέγει τῷ Καίσαρι. 13 Ὁ οὖν Πιλᾶτος ἀκούσας τῶν λόγων τούτων ἤγαγεν ἔξω τὸν Ἰησοῦν, καὶ ἐκάθισεν ἐπὶ βήματος εἰς τόπον λεγόμενον Λιθόστρωτον, Ἑβραϊστὶ δὲ Γαββαθα. 14 ἦν δὲ παρασκευὴ τοῦ πάσχα, ὥρα ἦν ὡς ἕκτη. καὶ λέγει τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις· Ἴδε ὁ βασιλεὺς ὑμῶν. 15 ἐκραύγασαν οὖν ἐκεῖνοι· Ἆρον ἆρον, σταύρωσον αὐτόν. λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος· Τὸν βασιλέα ὑμῶν σταυρώσω; ἀπεκρίθησαν οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς· Οὐκ ἔχομεν βασιλέα εἰ μὴ Καίσαρα. 16 τότε οὖν παρέδωκεν αὐτὸν αὐτοῖς ἵνα σταυρωθῇ. Παρέλαβον οὖν τὸν Ἰησοῦν·

Vocab

αἰτία cause;
ἄκανθα thorns;
ἀκάνθινος made of thorns;
ἀντιλέγω to speak in response, speak against; deny;
ἄνωθεν from above, again;
ἀπόκρισις answer; separating;
βῆμα step, platform, judgment seat;
Γαββαθᾶ Gabbatha;
Ἑβραϊστί in the Hebrew/Aramaic language;
ἕκτος sixth;
ἴδε look! pay attention!;
Καῖσαρ Caesar;
κραυγάζω to call out, shout;
Λιθόστρωτος pavement;
μαστιγόω to whip, beat with a whip;
παρασκευή preparation; preparation day (Friday);
πάσχα passover; passover lamb;
περιβάλλω to put on, clothe;
πλέκω to weave;
πόθεν from where?;
πορφυροῦς purple;
πραιτώριον army headquarters’;
ῥάπισμα stroke, blow, slap;
στέφανος crown;
στρατιώτης soldier;
ὑπηρέτης assistant;
φίλος friend, beloved; friendly, dear, pleasant, welcomel;
φορέω to wear; to bear;

The Crucifixion (19:16b–27)

Παρέλαβον οὖν τὸν Ἰησοῦν· 17 καὶ βαστάζων αὑτῷ τὸν σταυρὸν ἐξῆλθεν εἰς τὸν λεγόμενον Κρανίου Τόπον, ὃ λέγεται Ἑβραϊστὶ Γολγοθα, 18 ὅπου αὐτὸν ἐσταύρωσαν, καὶ μετʼ αὐτοῦ ἄλλους δύο ἐντεῦθεν καὶ ἐντεῦθεν, μέσον δὲ τὸν Ἰησοῦν. 19 ἔγραψεν δὲ καὶ τίτλον ὁ Πιλᾶτος καὶ ἔθηκεν ἐπὶ τοῦ σταυροῦ· ἦν δὲ γεγραμμένον· Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων. 20 τοῦτον οὖν τὸν τίτλον πολλοὶ ἀνέγνωσαν τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ὅτι ἐγγὺς ἦν ὁ τόπος τῆς πόλεως ὅπου ἐσταυρώθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς· καὶ ἦν γεγραμμένον Ἑβραϊστί, Ῥωμαϊστί, Ἑλληνιστί. 21 ἔλεγον οὖν τῷ Πιλάτῳ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς τῶν Ἰουδαίων· Μὴ γράφε· Ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ἀλλʼ ὅτι ἐκεῖνος εἶπεν Βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων εἰμί. 22 ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Πιλᾶτος· Ὃ γέγραφα γέγραφα. 23 οἱ οὖν στρατιῶται ὅτε ἐσταύρωσαν τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἔλαβον τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐποίησαν τέσσαρα μέρη, ἑκάστῳ στρατιώτῃ μέρος, καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα. ἦν δὲ ὁ χιτὼν ἄραφος, ἐκ τῶν ἄνωθεν ὑφαντὸς διʼ ὅλου· 24 εἶπαν οὖν πρὸς ἀλλήλους· Μὴ σχίσωμεν αὐτόν, ἀλλὰ λάχωμεν περὶ αὐτοῦ τίνος ἔσται· ἵνα ἡ γραφὴ πληρωθῇ ἡ λέγουσα· Διεμερίσαντο τὰ ἱμάτιά μου ἑαυτοῖς καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν ἱματισμόν μου ἔβαλον κλῆρον. Οἱ μὲν οὖν στρατιῶται ταῦτα ἐποίησαν. 25 Εἱστήκεισαν δὲ παρὰ τῷ σταυρῷ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἡ ἀδελφὴ τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ, Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Κλωπᾶ καὶ Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνή. 26 Ἰησοῦς οὖν ἰδὼν τὴν μητέρα καὶ τὸν μαθητὴν παρεστῶτα ὃν ἠγάπα λέγει τῇ μητρί· Γύναι, ἴδε ὁ υἱός σου· 27 εἶτα λέγει τῷ μαθητῇ· Ἴδε ἡ μήτηρ σου. καὶ ἀπʼ ἐκείνης τῆς ὥρας ἔλαβεν ὁ μαθητὴς αὐτὴν εἰς τὰ ἴδια.

Vocab

ἀδελφή sister;
ἄνωθεν from above, again;
ἄραφος seamless;
βαστάζω to bear;
Γολγοθᾶ Golgotha;
διαμερίζω to divide;
Ἑβραϊστί in the Hebrew/Aramaic language;
εἶτα then, next;
Ἑλληνιστί in the Greek language;
ἐντεῦθεν from here, on this side… on that side;
ἴδε look! pay attention!;
ἱματισμός clothing;
κλῆρος lot, portion; clergy;
Κλωπᾶς Clopas;
Κρανίον skull;
λαγχάνω to receive; cast lots;
Μαγδαληνή Magdalene;
Μαρία Mary;
Ναζωραῖος Nazarene;
Ῥωμαϊστί in the Latin language;
σταυρός cross;
στρατιώτης soldier;
σχίζω to split;
τίτλος inscription, notice;
Τόπος Place;
ὑφαντός woven;
χιτών tunic, shirt;

The Death of Jesus (19:28–30)

28 Μετὰ τοῦτο εἰδὼς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι ἤδη πάντα τετέλεσται ἵνα τελειωθῇ ἡ γραφὴ λέγει· Διψῶ. 29 σκεῦος ἔκειτο ὄξους μεστόν· σπόγγον οὖν μεστὸν τοῦ ὄξους ὑσσώπῳ περιθέντες προσήνεγκαν αὐτοῦ τῷ στόματι. 30 ὅτε οὖν ἔλαβεν τὸ ὄξος ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν· Τετέλεσται, καὶ κλίνας τὴν κεφαλὴν παρέδωκεν τὸ πνεῦμα.

Vocab

διψάω to thirst;
κεῖμαι to lie down; to be valid for;
κλίνω to lay, tip over;
μεστός full;
ὄξος sour wine; vinegar;
περιτίθημι to put on;
σκεῦος object, vessel;
σπόγγος sponge’
τελειόω to finish, to make perfect;
τελέω to finish;
ὕσσωπος hyssop;

Jesus’ Side is Pierced (19:31–37)

31 Οἱ οὖν Ἰουδαῖοι, ἐπεὶ παρασκευὴ ἦν, ἵνα μὴ μείνῃ ἐπὶ τοῦ σταυροῦ τὰ σώματα ἐν τῷ σαββάτῳ, ἦν γὰρ μεγάλη ἡ ἡμέρα ἐκείνου τοῦ σαββάτου, ἠρώτησαν τὸν Πιλᾶτον ἵνα κατεαγῶσιν αὐτῶν τὰ σκέλη καὶ ἀρθῶσιν. 32 ἦλθον οὖν οἱ στρατιῶται, καὶ τοῦ μὲν πρώτου κατέαξαν τὰ σκέλη καὶ τοῦ ἄλλου τοῦ συσταυρωθέντος αὐτῷ· 33 ἐπὶ δὲ τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐλθόντες, ὡς εἶδον ἤδη αὐτὸν τεθνηκότα, οὐ κατέαξαν αὐτοῦ τὰ σκέλη, 34 ἀλλʼ εἷς τῶν στρατιωτῶν λόγχῃ αὐτοῦ τὴν πλευρὰν ἔνυξεν, καὶ ἐξῆλθεν εὐθὺς αἷμα καὶ ὕδωρ. 35 καὶ ὁ ἑωρακὼς μεμαρτύρηκεν, καὶ ἀληθινὴ αὐτοῦ ἐστιν ἡ μαρτυρία, καὶ ἐκεῖνος οἶδεν ὅτι ἀληθῆ λέγει, ἵνα καὶ ὑμεῖς πιστεύητε. 36 ἐγένετο γὰρ ταῦτα ἵνα ἡ γραφὴ πληρωθῇ· Ὀστοῦν οὐ συντριβήσεται αὐτοῦ. 37 καὶ πάλιν ἑτέρα γραφὴ λέγει· Ὄψονται εἰς ὃν ἐξεκέντησαν.

Vocab

ἀληθής true, honest, genuine;
ἀληθινός true, genuine;
ἐκκεντέω to goad, spur out, pierce, stab;
ἐπεί since, because, when; otherwise;
θνῄσκω to die;
κατάγνυμι to break, shatter;
λόγχη spear;
νύσσω to stab, prick;
ὀστέον bone;
παρασκευή preparation; preparation day (Friday);
πλευρά side; rib;
σκέλος leg;
σταυρός cross;
στρατιώτης soldier;
στρατιώτης to crush, to break;
συσταυρόω to crucify with;

Interpreting Apocalyptic Symbolism in Matthew

Daniel Gurtner has a helpful essay in the most recent issue of Bulletin for Biblical Research (BBR)[1], titled “Interpreting Apocalyptic Symbolism in Matthew.” The goal of the essay is to outline a methodology for interpreting “apocalyptic symbolism in Matthew”[2] (I would say after reading the essay this could be applied to the other Gospels as well). After briefly summarizing the apocalyptic interpretation in Matthew he concludes that some, such as David Sim, place too much emphasis on “Matthew’s community”. While recognizing that apocalyptic literature typically arises out of an oppressed community he argues that Matthew’s gospel is not an apocalypse but rather a bios with apocalyptic imagery woven in. It is better to understand Matthew’s use of apocalyptic to “convey the meaning of history more profoundly than would be possible from a straightforward narrative” (544). Therefore, one loses sight of the reason Matthew is using apocalyptic writing when they tried to establish a community in which Matthew is writing in.

Gurtner says that the one aspect that is similar in all types of apocalyptic writing is symbolism. Since symbolism is present in post apocalypses (literary genre) and other genres that contain apocalyptic language (i.e. the Gospels) then this should be the interpreters entry into studying the apocalyptic writing of the Gospels. In order to identify and interpret these symbols he uses the interpretive methods G.K. Beale uses in understanding Revelation:

  1. When the symbol is not clearly identified by the author the interpreter must look at a “known commonplace association of a picture” (shared corpus)
  2. If the first option is not identifiable the interpreter should look at the “literal subject itself” (534). Gurtner notes that symbolic does not necessarily mean nonliteral. He gives the example of the exodus and the resurrection. Both events are highly symbolic (exodus = salvation/deliverance) but they are both understood to be literal events.

The rest of the essay provides an example using Gurtner’s interpretation of the tearing of the temple veil in Matthew. He has already done many studies ( dissertation, essay in JETS) but the purpose of this essay is to show the methodology of his interpretation rather than shed new light on the text.

Not having much history with apocalyptic writing I found this essay helpful as an entrance into the world of apocalypticism in interpreting the symbolic nature of the writing. The essay is worth a read as a helpful example of working through an apocalyptic writing within the Gospel narrative.


  1. Gurtner, Daniel. “Interpreting Apocalyptic Symbolism in the Gospel of Matthew.” Bulletin For Biblical Research 22, no. 4 (Winter 2012): 525–546.  ↩

  2. Gurtner acknowledges that the term “apocalyptic symbolism” is a “contradiction in terms. And, ironically, it is precisely this confusion in terminology that has led to confusion in interpretation” (525)  ↩

How to use BDAG – Rodney Decker

If you’re anything like me you began using A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Christian Literature (BDAG) without stopping to think about how actually to use it.  Sure, you can use it to find a reliable gloss but there is a wealth of information in there that you are not tapping into.  Rodney Decker has written (back in 2003) an extremely helpful essay giving a brief history of lexicography and BDAG along with an extensive analysis of how to actually use the lexicon.  This is one essay that I wish I would have read in my first semester of Greek.

You can find the link to the essay here.  The essay is also in the appendix of his Koine Greek Reader

Also, you should check out his website/blog, NT Resources, which is filled with a wealth of Greek and other biblical resources.

 

 

 

HT: Danny Zacharias